Tuesday, April 28, 2015

Execution of Bali Nine duo and implications for Australia

By Ross B. Taylor

The execution of Myuran Sukumaran and Andrew Chan is now confirmed for as early as tonight, and with this announcement will come the greatest test for Indonesia-Australia relations since the East Timor crisis in 1999.
The execution of the Bali Nine duo will come at a time when a relatively new government in Indonesia is facing an enormous backlash from around-the-world, including Australia, over its decision to proceed with the execution those who traffic drugs.
Following the executions, there is the likelihood that Australia will recall our recently appointed ambassador to Indonesia, Paul Grigson, and there will be calls for Australia to impose trade and tourism sanctions, withdraw aid-funding and government-to-government co-operation.
The announcement of the intent to kill these two men has resulted in the cancelation of the visit to Perth today by Indonesia’s former, and respected president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) to address the In-the-Zone conference at UWA this week. The announcement was also made on Anzac Day; Australia's most sacred day.
Australia’s reaction to the deaths of these two men will need to be considered very carefully however, in the current volatile environment. Our PM can no longer simply pick-up the phone and talk to ‘Australia’s friend’ SBY as president, and whilst our foreign minister Julie Bishop can still text her former counter-part, Dr Marty Natalegawa, the new foreign minister, Retno Marsudi is reluctant to take any calls.
Mr Abbott and Ms Bishop will also be aware that currently, Indonesian democracy and stability under president Joko ‘Jokowi’ Widodo’s seven month-old administration is in a very fragile condition as they show all the signs of inexperience, naivety and considerable dysfunction. Add to this a wave of nationalism engulfing our northern neighbour and we have a ‘perfect storm’ for the bi-lateral relationship.
In attacking Indonesia for what is being seen by many Australians as a barbaric act, we need to remember that as a young nation we embraced capital punishment for 84 years, until we finally removed the death sentence from the statute in 1985. It took generations and years of community debate to demonstrate to the Australian people that a ‘civil society’ should not legally kill anyone. Indonesia is only 67 years old as an independent nation, and democracy – where the people and civil society campaigners can speak openly about the need for social change – is only in its 17th year.
In Australia, we now embrace the notion that smoking, for example, is terrible and we have laws and community support to ensure our population avoids this lethal drug. In Indonesia young people are subjected to vast tobacco advertising and availability, and community attitudes are still divided as to whether smoking is dangerous; even though over 400,000 Indonesians die each year from lung cancer.
Indonesia is learning that to significantly reduce the number of people who smoke, needs community support and understanding, and from the Australian experience, it will take several generations to get the total community awareness to allow for that change. Capital punishment is no different.
For the past ten years there has been an ongoing debate amongst civil society advocates within Indonesia about the need to stop the legalised killing of people for serious crimes. But it needs an extensive community and national discussion and awareness campaign. It will happen, but they need more than 17 years.
Meanwhile, the entire handling of the planned execution of Sukumaran and Chan by Indonesian officials has been a debacle and is quite rightly being seen internationally as cruel and insensitive. Australia has every right to express its disappointment and objection given that Indonesia will proceed with these executions as early as this week.

As this terrible story unfolds, the question needs to be asked: How bad can things get between our two countries? Sadly, there is the very real potential for things to get a lot worse as even the Indonesian president himself faces a threat to his political survival, whilst the ‘spill-over’ affect of domestic instability within Indonesia will leave Australian diplomats very worried indeed.

The implications of what is now playing out are significant. Only last month the highly respect defence expert, Professor Alan Dupont, urged Australia and Indonesia to ‘foster closer strategic partnerships in defence’. As we witness the rise-and-rise of China in the region and the US response to that expansion, Professor Dupont is right to highlight the critical joint role for Indonesia and Australia in keeping our region secure, but how do we achieve that objective when our two leaders don’t even talk to each other?

People smuggling, anti-terrorism, business and trade opportunities are further reasons that demand close relations between Indonesia and Australia.

Therefore, here in Australia, a far more measured response to the execution of Chan and Sukumaran is critical to avoid ‘feeding’ the now very strong nationalistic furore engulfing our northern neighbour amidst chaotic events domestically over a wide range of issues including the appointment of the national chief-of-police and the attack on the Anti-Corruption Commission.

President Widodo can still turn his political fortunes around; but it won’t be easy, as no one is really sure where the turmoil engulfing his new administration will lead, but what we do know is that as the executions of these two Australians take place, we must tread with great care.

So as these two men die, so will a part of Indonesia's humanity, but for now much is at stake; and much more than just our precious Bali holidays.

Ross Taylor is the President of the Indonesia Institute.

Indonesian headlines: Operatic barbarism

By Lauren Gumbs

The Indonesian media is following the executions minute by minute, with around the clock coverage of the progress of the situation. This is an incredibly populist topic with many poised to see their president follow through on an internationally condemned decision that will cement Indonesia's new foreign policy paradigm. It is insightful, though somewhat macabre, to observe what is being reported around the death penalty levelled against so many foreign nationals.

These are the headlines (topik terhangat) Tuesday 28 April from some of the country's biggest newspapers:

(conservative, moderate)

Jelang Eksekusi Mati "Bali Nine" - Eagle execution of the Bali Nine.
Jaksa Agung Sudah Putuskan Waktu Eksekusi Mati 9 Terperdana - The Attorney General already decided the time for execution of the 9 inmates.
Intervensi Eksekusi Mati, PBB Bisa Dicap Terpengaruh Jaringan Narkoba Internasional - Death penalty intervention, United Nations labecan be stamped as most influential in the international narcotics network.
Menko Polhukum: Ada Terpidana Mati yang Dieksekusi Pekan Ini - Coordinating Minister says the convcts will be executed this week.
Kejagung: Sekarang Sudah Masuk Masa Tenang Jelang Eksekusi Mati - AGO: Now we've entered the quiet period before the executions.
Ketua DPR: PBB Tidak Bisa Intervensi Hukum di Indonesia - House Speaker: UN intervention not legal in Indonesia.
Indonesia Masuk Darurat Narkoba, Ketua MPR Dukung Eksekusi Mati - Indonesia in a state of drugs emergency, Chairman of the Assembly supports executions.
Tiap Regu Tembak Eksekusi Mati Tahap II Beranggotakan 14 Personel - Ready to shoot dead, execution phase 2 composed of 14 personel.
10 Mobil Jenazah Tiba di Pulau Nusakambangan - 10 hearses arrive on Nusakambagan Island.
Selebriti Australia Rilis Video Desak PM Abbott Selamatkan Duo "Bali Nine" - Australian Celebrity video urges PM to save the Bali Nine duo.
TB Hasanuddin: PBB Mudah Diintervensi Negara-negara Besar - Hasanuddin: UN easily intervenes in large countries.
Michael Chan: Adik Saya Seorang Pendeta... - Michael Chan: My brother is a priest.
Ini Pesan Terakhir Andrew Chan "Bali Nine" untuk Istrinya - Andrew Chan's last message for his wife.
Ketika Kakak Andrew Chan Mengenang Adiknya ... - When the older brother of Andrew Chan remembers his little brother...


Kejagung beri keterangan jadwal eksekusi 9 terpidana mati - AGO reveals execution schedule of the 9 inmates sentenced to death.
Eksekusi sudah ditentukan, 9 terpidana mati akan ditembak serentak - Execution has been determined and the 9 inmates will be shot to death simultaneously.
Massa dari KontraS geruduk Kejagung tolak eksekusi mati - Most of Kontras urges AGO to reject executions.
Ini penjelasan Jaksa Agung terkait waktu pelaksanaan hukuman mati - Attorney General's explanations relate to time of executions.
Wasiat duo Bali Nine minta jenazah dikubur di Australia - In the Bali Nine duo's last rites they ask that their bodies be buried in Australia.
Jelang eksekusi, jam besuk keluarga terpidana mati maksimal 20.00 - Ahead of the executions, death row family members can only visit up until 8pm.

Intip pembuatan salib nisan untuk para terpidana mati - Manufacture of cross headstones for the the dead inmates.

(urban educated, Islamic)

SBY postpones trip to Perth
Menkpolhukum: Eksekusi Mati Dilaksanakan Pekan Ini - Executions to be implemented this week.
Duo Bali Nine akan Dieksekusi, SBY Tunda Kunjungan ke Australia - Bali Nine will be executed, SB postpones visit to Australia.
DPR Desak Pemerintah Pastikan Pelaksanaan Eksekusi Mati Terpidana Narkoba - Parliament urges the government to ensure the executions of convicted drug inmates.
Rohaniwan Bawakan Kurma dan Alquran untuk Terpidana Mati - Clergy brings dates and koran for dead inmates.
In Picture: Jelang Eksekusi, Kendaraan Ambulan Tiba di Nusakambangan - Ambulances arrive in Nusakambangan ahead of executions.
DPR: PBB Tidak Bisa Intervensi Hukum di Indonesia - DPR: The UN cannot intervene in Indonesia's law.
Ditekan Soal Eksekusi Mati, MPR: Pemerintah tak Perlu Risau - Pressed about the executions, MPR says the Government doesn't need to worry.
Anggota DPR Sesalkan Sikap Ban Ki-moon - Members of the house regret Ban Ki Moon's attitude.
Pengamat: Eksekusi Mati itu Penegakan Hukum - Observer: Death penalty is law enforcement.
Zainal Abidin Tegar Menghadapi Eksekusi Mati - Zainal Abidin: It's tough facing the death penalty.
Pasukan Eksekutor Sudah Masuk ke Lapas Nusakambangan - The troops who will carry out the executions have already entered Nusakambangan prison.
Keluarga Bisa Temui Terpidana Mati Hingga Pukul 20.00 - Families of the convicted can meet up until 8pm.
Menhan: Eksekusi Mati Keputusan Terbaik - Defence Minister: Executions are the best decision.

(populist, Islamic) 

Mayoritas Rakyat Dukung Hukuman Mati Gembong Narkoba - The majority support executions for drug kingpins.
sekusi Mati Gembong Narkoba, Kejagung Tidak Jelas - See more at: http://pelitaonline.com/news/2015/04/28/mayoritas-rakyat-dukung-hukuman-mati-gembong-narkoba/#sthash.Spfd6ZgC.dpuf
tas Rakyat Dukung Hukuman Mati Gembong Narkoba
Jaksa Agung: Terpidana Mati Dieksekusi Serentak - Attorney General: Convicts to be executed simultaneously.
Hakim Duo Bali Nine Minta Satu Miliar - Bali Nine judge asked for one million dollars.

In Pelita there were more stories about Ahok Basuki Purnama giving prostitutes certification (seen to support rampant promiscuity) than about the executions.

Hakim Duo Bali Nine Minta Satu Miliar


Monday, April 13, 2015

New posts this week: Reformasi, the Bali Nine, communism, childcare and sectarianism

Selamat datang ke Indonesia Today,

Tolong menikmati para post yang baru. The Asian African Conference is scheduled for next week and Jakarta is sparing no expense to make the city presentable - or secure. If only those thousands of cleaners and police could clean up the real muck - corruption. If you've got the stomach to follow the impenetrable twists and turns of Indonesian football, check out why the Ministry of Sports is being threatened with FIFA sanctions. There are two main leagues - the ISL and the IPL and the 'official' league switches from year to year with constant disputes over legitimacy.

In another corruption story, the KPK 'witchhunt' is still in full swing and despite concerted attempts by corruption suspects and the National Police to undermine the institution's standing and authority, the KPK just arrested one of my least favorite politicians, Suryadharma Ali, from the Ministry of Religion, on suspicion of embezzlement. Who would have thought?

Happy Paskah - lebih baik terlambat daripada tidak sama sekali!


Please enjoy this week's posts:

'Can Indonesians save the remnants of Reformasi?' by Warren Doull, March 2015.

'Bali Nine duo lost in malaise of domestic discontent,' by Ross B. Taylor, April 2015.

'A new ideology to replace the threat of communism in Indonesia?' by Warren Doull, April 2015.

'Echoes of Middle East strife rattle Indonesia,' by Erwida Maulia, April 2015.

'Overseas help won't solve Australia's childcare problems: Bill Shorten.' by The Guardian, April 2015.

Extra reading:

But does Bill have it all wrong? Asian Au Pairs are potentially a boon for both Indonesia and Australia; socially, culturally and economically. My new article in the latest issue of the Strategic Review.

Check out Inside Indonesia's new edition. Its focus is youth employment prospects and aspirations.

Burmese fishermen enslaved on remote Indonesian island are free.

Echoes of Middle East Strife Rattle Indonesia

By Erwida Maulia

It wasn’t until a few years ago that the word “Shiite” suddenly began to inspire a negative, if not hateful, tone among some members of the Indonesian Sunni community.

In the country with the world’s biggest Muslim population, where the overwhelming majority who practice the faith identify as Sunni, the word “Shiite” probably struck as something foreign and strange — but never had it triggered so hateful a tone in sermons at mosques or daily conversations among Indonesian Sunni Muslims.

And then the Syrian war broke out in early 2011, with President Bashar al-Assad of the minority Shiite sect, the Alawites, fighting against Sunni-dominated rebels.

A year later, a conflict erupted between local Sunni and Shiite residents in a village in Sampang, in Indonesia’s Madura Island. Houses belonging to Shiite members were torched, and two Shiites were killed.

And then somehow, suddenly, Shiites became public enemy number one among some conservative members of the Indonesian Sunni community.

A campaign declaring the Shiites heretics began to be preached at mosques; last year, presidential candidate Joko Widodo was rumored to be a pro-Shiite agent ahead of the election in July; and more recently, a government ban (and subsequent backtrack) on 19 websites deemed to be spreading extremist ideology was lambasted as part of a pro-Shiite conspiracy — with many of the websites known to publish articles containing hateful sentiment against the Shiites.

Fajar Riza Ul Haq, an Islamic scholar and executive director of the Maarif Institute, says there has always been some kind of a strain in the relationship between Indonesia’s Sunni and Shiite communities.

Over the past few years, though, that tension has increased, prompted partly by the failure of the administration of former president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono to protect members of the country’s religious minorities amid acts of violence and discrimination by hard-liners, Fajar says.

When the sectarian conflict between Sunnis and Shiites in Iraq escalated, followed by the Syrian war, the ramifications spread far beyond the Middle East, reverberating in Indonesia.
Fajar says he is concerned that the tension will only get worse with the latest conflict in Yemen, which international analysts see as yet another proxy battle between the Middle East’s Sunni powers and Shiite-led Iran.

The Indonesian Muslim scholar says the “internal dynamics” between Sunnis and Shiites in Indonesia “have been influenced by the development of conflicts in the Middle East.”
“And now that the conflict in Yemen is likely heading for worse [...] I observe a deliberate attempt to exacerbate the Sunni-Shiite relations in Indonesia by blurring the conflict in Yemen and presenting it as a Sunni-Shiite conflict, when this is actually a political conflict,” Fajar says.

Yemen has been wracked by violence since last year, when Shiite Houthi fighters seized the capital Sanaa and forced President Abedrabbo Mansour Hadi to flee into exile in neighboring Saudi Arabia. The conflict intensified nearly weeks ago with a relentless series of air strikes against Houthi positions by a Saudi-led coalition.

Indonesian Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi on Monday said approximately 700 Indonesian nationals had been evacuated from Yemen since December last year, amid the growing conflict.

Another Islamic scholar, Azyumardi Azra, says that the Sunni-Shiite tension in Indonesia has grown in line with the “escalating rivalry” between Saudi Arabia and Iran to spread their influence.

The former rector of Syarif Hidayatullah Islamic State University in Jakarta, however, says he doubts that the hostilities are registering with the majority of Indonesian Muslims, whom he calls moderate.

“Anti-Shiite groups are trying to fuel a sectarian conflict in Indonesia, but such a conflict won’t be supported by moderate Muslim groups in Indonesia, such as Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah,” Azyumardi says, referring to Indonesia’s two largest Muslim organizations.

“The majority of Muslims here aren’t affected by the conflict because of the involvement of NU, Muhammadiyah, etc.”

Fajar, nevertheless, says groups such as NU and Muhammadiyah need to do more to prevent the growing tension from spilling over into more violence.

“Indonesian Muslim communities must understand the map of the problems, the situation in the Middle East. Arab nations under Saudi Arabia are using the sectarian issue against the Shiites to unite themselves, when this is all actually about Saudi Arabia versus Iran,” he says.

Fajar urges the Indonesian government and civil society groups such as NU and Muhammadiyah to proactively disseminate understanding among Indonesian Muslims that the conflicts in the Middle East are not Shiite-Sunni conflicts.

“The Indonesian public must be smart and not get caught up in it.”

Furthermore, Fajar says Indonesian Muslims should stop viewing Saudi Arabia as the center of the Islamic universe, arguing that the kingdom is merely engaged in a “selfish effort” to spread its hard-line Wahhabi ideology and keep its monarchy in power.

This article originally appeared  7 April in The Jakarta Globe.

Overseas help won't solve Australia's childcare problems, says Bill Shorten

By The Guardian

Increasing the intake of foreign at-home carers would not be a long-term solution to Australia’s childcare problems, Bill Shorten said after the government indicated it may consider extending working visas for au pairs.

Au pairs coming to Australia from overseas fall under the working holiday visa restrictions of only being able to work for a maximum of six months for one employer. This means families have half a year of certainty with individual au pairs before searching for another one.
The Productivity Commission report into childcare, released in February, recommended extending that timeframe.

“The Australian government should simplify working holiday visa requirements to make it easier for families to employ au pairs, by allowing au pairs to work for a family for up to the full 12-month term of the visa, rather than the current limit of six months per family,” it said.
That suggestion did not receive a warm endorsement from opposition leader Bill Shorten.
“I think the big challenges in childcare aren’t going to be solved by bringing in nannies from overseas,” he said. “If people think that we’re going to have all the children in Australia and their childcare solved by bringing in a whole lot of overseas nannies... that’s not the long-term solution.”

“I don’t think it goes to the fundamental challenges of childcare in Australia. I think what we need to do is make sure it’s properly funded, that people can afford to pay it, that the fees aren’t getting out of control and of course it’s good quality for our kids,” Shorten said.
Social services minister Scott Morrison said he was working with Labor on a response to the commission’s recommendations.

“The government is considering the recommendations of the Productivity Commission and has made no announcement on liberalising access to au pairs,” Morrison said in a statement.

President of the Migration Institute of Australia, Angela Chan, said that governments have debated the extension of working entitlements for au pairs for nearly three decades.
“It’s not a new thing,” Chan said. “Families have always wanted to bring people out to look after their children.”

Chan said that the issue of pay and conditions would need to be revisited if there is an influx of foreign au pairs.

“There’d have to be guidelines put in place to protect the foreign workers,” she said.
Ben Tessler, whose Western Australian family recently employed an au pair, said: “I think anything the government can do to relax the visa laws for au pairs will take the pressure off financially for many families in Australia.”

“If they soften the visa requirements it will open access for more families,” Tessler told Channel Ten.

Au pairs can be paid as little as $200 a week for their work, as their employment conditions include room and board.

“They [the government] would have to be very careful that they’re not undermining the childcare industry with the wages they’re paying,” Chan said.

The Productivity Commission report also recommends extending childcare rebate payments to cover approved nannies who meet training standards. Au pairs, who traditionally do housework as well as child-minding, are not counted in this category.

Morrison is engaging in a series of consultation with childcare professionals before releasing the government’s response to the commission’s report.

This article originally appeared 5 April in The Guardian.

A new ideology to replace the threat of communism in Indonesia?

By Warren Doull

Since 2014 a new ideology has been rising in Indonesia. The new ideology – ‘fear of foreign proxies’, emphasises that Indonesia is threatened by proxy wars. Could this new ideology be manipulated by Indonesia’s elites to consolidate their growing power and block dissent?

In April 2014, Army chief of staff General Gatot Nurmantyo told university students in Bandung that foreign interests could threaten Indonesia by influencing proxies (third parties) to undermine Indonesia. These proxies, he explained might include small countries, NGOs, civil society organisations, mass media and individuals . These proxies, he seemed to suggest, could include Indonesian organisations and individuals. [1] However, the organisations he is branding as proxies seem to be the very organisations that are most likely to demand accountability from the increasingly undemocratic oligarchy in Indonesia.
As ‘fear of foreign proxies’ spreads across Indonesia, domestic NGOs, civil society organizations, mass media and individuals may find it more difficult to criticize corruption, environmental pillaging and trampling of marginal ethnic groups because Indonesia’s ruling elite may brand them as proxies for foreign interests.

Since the election of President Jokowi, this ideology has been gaining momentum. In September 2014, Nurmanto warned students in Jogyakarta about the threat of proxies. [2] In early October 2014, Hanura parliamentarian Dr. Susaningtyas Kertopati joined him in espousing this ideology. [3] In mid- October 2014, Nurmantyo was spreading the ideology to eastern Indonesia. He told university students in Ambon that the spread of narcotics into Indonesia was part of an international conspiracy to destroy Indonesia. [4] Then he continued on to Merauke and told Papuans that a proxy war had been used to separate Timor-Leste from Indonesia due to oil interests in 1999.[5] At the end of October, he was telling university students in Bali that foreign interests might seek to restrict development and education in Indonesia.[6] Similarly in October 2014, other military officials ran a seminar in Lampung titled ‘the role of youth in facing proxy wars’.[7]
This emerging ideology appears not to have been reported in the English language media until March 2015 so most links in this article are to Bahasa Indonesia news sites.
By November 2014, warnings about ‘proxy wars’ were spreading fast. The military was warning high school kids about the threat posed by small countries, NGOs, civil society organisations, mass media or individuals.  [8] University students in Depok, south Jakarta, were warned against foreign interests who recruit Indonesia’s younger generation with indoctrination, education facilities and materials, so that they will become agents of foreign countries (Merekrut generasi muda Indonesia dengan indoktrinasi disertai fasilitas pendidikan dan materi, agar mau jadi agen negara asing).[9] In 2015, the military campaign against ‘proxies’ has continued right across Indonesia. A major ideological campaign is underway.
An Indonesian English language newspaper finally reported this growing ideology following visits by Nurmanto to Semarang [10] and Medan [11] in March and April 2015 respectively.
Why is this campaign being run now? Proxy wars are not a new trend. Many conflicts before and during the Cold War were proxy wars, including conflicts in Indonesia in 1965 and 1975. One thing that is new is that the national Parliament and police force have become the most corrupt institutes in Indonesia [12] and have, since mid-2014, been consolidating their power. Parliamentarians’ attempts to undermine others who might challenge them began with an unsuccessful attempt in mid-2014 to have provincial governors appointed not by direct election but by corrupt local parliaments. In early 2015, parliamentarians and senior police successfully crippled the nation’s Corruption Eradication Commission. 

There is a growing risk that they may soon manipulate the military’s proxy war ideology to cripple other Indonesian organisations which might challenge them. As the new xenophobic ideology spreads, Indonesian NGOs, civil society organisations, mass media or individuals will find it more difficult to criticise corruption, environmental pillaging and trampling of marginal ethnic groups. They will fear being labelled by the re-emerging oligarchy as proxies for foreign interests.

Indonesians, like all other nationalities, do indeed need to be wary of being caught up in proxy wars. Xenophobia is not healthy but wariness and ability to critically analyse foreign interests is certainly healthy. But Indonesians also need wariness and ability to critically analyse the selfish interests of their own elites. With Indonesia’s Corruption Eradication Commission crippled in early 2015, NGOs and civil society organisations are two remaining voices to hold the oligarchs accountable. What may have started as a well-intentioned campaign by the military may well be soon manipulated by elites to less nationalistic purposes.

Indonesians need to be wary about being trapped by their own oligarchs, where organisations that speak out against the oligarchs are labelled as proxies for foreign powers. Voices of dissent are now vulnerable to being branded as proxies if they speak out in favour of improved government accountability, stricter controls over environmental exploitation, respect for marginalised ethnic groups, workers’ rights and improved government services for the nation’s millions of poor people. If this happens, Indonesia will slip further into the noose of a Parliamentarian-Senior Police oligarchy whose recent treatment of Indonesia’s Corruption Eradication Commission suggests their first priority is their own bank accounts.
Warren Doull is a pseudonym. Warren worked for UNTAET in Timor-Leste in 2001-2002 and has also lived and worked extensively in Indonesia.

[1] http://www.suaramerdeka.com/v1/index.php/read/news/2014/04/30/200395/Pangkostrad-Ingatkan-Bahaya-Proxy-War
[2] http://www.uny.ac.id/berita/peran-pemuda-dalam-menghadapi-proxy-war.html
[3] http://www.antaranews.com/berita/457835/pemerintah-harus-waspadai-proxy-war
[4] http://www.iberita.com/49529/kasad-penyalahgunaan-narkoba-bagian-dari-strategi-proxy-war
[5] http://salampapua.com/tanah-papua/1058-kasad-tegaskan-proxy-war-ancaman-buat-indonesia
[6] http://www.sentralbali.com/polkrim/1239-kasad-ingatkan-gerakan-proxy-war.html
[7] http://www.tni.mil.id/view-67222-sosialisasi-tentang-peran-pemuda-dalam-menghadapi-proxy-war.html
[8] http://kodam1-bukitbarisan.mil.id/2014/11/17/sosialisasi-peran-pemuda-dalam-menghadapi-proxy-war/
[9] http://strategi-militer.blogspot.com/2014/12/proxy-war-negara-adikuasa-terhadap.html
[10] http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/03/10/indonesia-faces-proxy-war-army-chief.html
[11] http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/04/02/islands-focus-army-chief-talks-proxy-war-medan.html
[12] http://en.tempo.co/read/news/2013/09/17/055514180/KPK-Names-Indonesian-Parliament-Second-Most-Corrupt-Institution